Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Further examination of Dependent Origination...

The 12 step dependent origination is as follows.

1. From the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications (volitional formation/sankhara)
2. From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness.
3. From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form.
4. From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media.
5. From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact.
6. From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling.
7. From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving.
8. From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance.
9. From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming.
10. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth.
11. From the cessation of birth,
12. then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress & suffering."
-Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu

1. In a mind with the ignorance:

Volitional formation (sankhara) are made of meritorious karma (puññ'ābhisankhāra), demeritorious (apuññ'abhisankhāra) and imperturbable (āneñj'ābhisankhāra). They all have the potential to make bahva (kamma formation for the vipaka) as long as there is craving and clinging along the way. The meritorious karma-formations (puññ'ābhisankhāra) has the potential make birth in Karma Loka and Rupa Loka (sensuous and the fine-material sphere). This could a result of positive kamma for example, Dana(generosity) Sila (virtue), Bhavana (meditation) and attainment of Rupa Jhanas (fine matrial Jhanas) respectively. The demeritorious (apuññ'abhisankhāra) sankhara will only result bhava in the Karma Loka (sensuous sphere) for example in the Hell realms, and the 'imperturbable'(āneñj'ābhisankhāra) only to the Arupa Loka (immaterial sphere)

Then six senses (sixfold sense base -salayatana) works as follows.
When the eye meets an object, the eye consciousness arises. The union of these three: The eye + the object + the eye consciousness = contact (arises)
(The same is true for all other 5 senses).

Contact gives rise to feeling.
Feeling then gives rise to craving which gives rise to clinging and subsequently to becoming (Bhava). This is the kamma formation for resultant vipaka in the future.

After death the vinnana ( the stream of consciousness) continues, driven by the craving of previous existence. The three sankaras (see above) have already done the job for its arrival
(Bhava-kamma formations for resultant vipaka).

2. In a mind without ignorance (in fully enlighten being)
None of the three volitional formations are present.
"Monks, when the monk's ignorance has faded and is dispelled when science* has arisen he does not intend merit, does not intend demerit neither does he intend imperturbability"
-Parivãmansana sutta, Saüyutta Nikàya

* Science- vijja [vijjaa]:Clear knowledge; genuine awareness; science (specifically, the cognitive powers developed through the practice of concentration and discernment).

Therefore no consciousness (vinnana) for the future being. This leads to no more name and form (namarupa) for the future being and no generation of six sense bases (birth*) for the future continuation of the dependent origination. No more contact, feeling, clinging.... future birth is ended.

"Not intending and not planning he does not cling to anything in the world. The clinging severed he is not worried. Not worried he is extinguished internally. He knows birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived, duties are done, there is nothing more to wish."

Therefore the link common to past and the future birth of the 12 step depended origination fomula above is the six sense bases.
Now how does the existing six sense bases work in a fully enlightened being in the present. In the case of a fully enlightened being there is no more ignorance. This is the first step in depended origination (see the 12 steps above). With the destruction of ignorance two other defilements, craving and clinging will also be gone (simultaneously).

"He feels pleasant feelings, knows they are impermanent and knows should not cling to them. Or take delight in them. Feels unpleasant feelings, knows they are impermanent and should not cling to them, or delight in them. Feels neither unpleasant nor pleasant feelings, knows they are impermanent, knows should not cling to them, or delight in them"
"No more clinging, and therefore no more becoming, no more birth, no more old age, illness, death all which are causes of suffering."
-Parivãmansana sutta, Saüyutta Nikàya

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